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Glossary

Useful definitions

This is a glossary of definitions for Te Tiriti o Waitangi and The Treaty of Waitangi and Healthcare course.

Aotearoa: Aotearoa is Māori name used for New Zealand. Initially, only the North Island was Aotearoa, and The South Island was called Te Waipounamu.

Contra proferentem doctrine: The contra proferentem doctrine is a principle of contractual interpretation. It provides that any ambiguity in a contract should be interpreted against the party who drafted the contract or provided the language.

Chieftainship: Chieftainship refers to the position or status of chief or leader in a tribe or community.

Governor Grey was a British soldier, explorer, and colonial administrator who served as Governor of New Zealand from 1845 to 1853 and 1861 to 1868. He played a significant role in shaping New Zealand’s colonial policies, including the Treaty of Waitangi and the formation of the Auckland settlement.

Governor Hobson was a British naval officer and colonial administrator. Hobson was appointed as the first Governor of New Zealand in 1840, and he played a vital role in the drafting and signing the Treaty of Waitangi, which established British sovereignty over the country.

He Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni: The Declaration of Independence of the United Tribes of New Zealand and ratified by King William of the United Kingdom 1V on October 28, 1836.

Hongi Hika: Hongi Hika (c. 1772 – 1828) was a Māori rangatira (chief) and war leader of the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe) who played a significant role in the early interactions between Māori and Europeans in Aotearoa/New Zealand. He signed the Treaty of Waitangi and is remembered for his military campaigns and strategic alliances.

Indigeneity: Indigeneity refers to being native to a specific land, territory, or region with a shared history, culture, and identity among community members.

Kaupapa refers to principles, values, and agendas guiding Māori collective action. It is a central concept in Māori culture and is often used to describe Māori-led initiatives, organisations, and research projects driven by Māori priorities and aspirations.

Kāwanatanga: Kāwanatanga is a transliteration of Governorship.

Kīngitanga: Kīngitanga is a Māori word that refers to the Māori King Movement, which was established in the 1850s as a way for Māori to assert their sovereignty and maintain their authority over their lands and people.

Kororāreka: Kororāreka, now known as Russell, was the largest town in New Zealand in the early 1800s, located in the Bay of Islands.

Mana: Mana carries the idea of power, authority, control, prestige, and, if taken to its logical extent, the concept of Sovereignty.

Māori: The term “Māori” refers to the native people of New Zealand.

: Pā is a Māori word that refers to a fortified village or settlement typically found on a hilltop or ridge for defensive purposes. It played an important role in Māori warfare and history.

Pākehā: Pākehā is a Māori language term used to refer to New Zealanders who are not of Māori descent, mainly of European descent.

Rangatiratanga: Rangatiratanga is a Māori term that translates to ‘chieftainship’ or ‘authority.’ It refers to Māori sovereignty and self-determination, particularly about the Treaty of Waitangi and its principles.

Rewha-rewha: Influenza is a highly contagious viral infection causing fever, severe aching, and catarrh. The 1918 influenza epidemic killed 40 million people worldwide, with between 6,700 and 8,500 deaths in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

Sovereignty: Sovereignty refers to supreme authority or power over a territory or political entity.

Taonga: In Māori culture, taonga refers to treasures, including precious objects, natural resources, and intangible cultural heritage such as language and knowledge.

Tapu: In Māori culture, tapu refers to a sacred or holy state, place, or object and something prohibited or restricted.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi: The Treaty of Waitangi is a significant document signed on February 6, 1840, between representatives of the British Crown and several Māori chiefs. It is considered the foundational document of New Zealand and is widely recognised as a symbol of the relationship between Māori and the British Crown. The Treaty holds immense cultural importance and has played a crucial role in shaping the history of New Zealand.

Te Whare Tapa Whā: Te Whare Tapa Whā is a Māori model of health that recognises the four dimensions of wellbeing: taha tinana (physical health), taha wairua (spiritual health), taha hinengaro (mental health), and taha whānau (family health).

Tino rangatiratanga: Tino rangatiratanga, in this context, means absolute sovereignty or full authority. It refers to the right of Māori to determine their affairs, manage their resources, and exercise self-determination. This relates to the discussion on Co-Governance.

Te Tiriti: relates to Te Tiriti o Waitangi, which was signed by the Māori chiefs and representatives of the British Crown in 1840, establishing a foundational agreement in New Zealand’s history.

Tohunga: Tohunga is a Maori term for an expert or practitioner of traditional Maori knowledge, skills, and practices, highly respected in the community for preserving and transmitting Maori culture and traditions.

Tūpāpaku: Tūpāpaku refers to the body of a deceased person.

Waitangi Tribunal: The Waitangi Tribunal is a New Zealand Crown entity that investigates and makes recommendations on claims brought by Māori relating to Crown actions or omissions that breach the promises made in the Treaty of Waitangi.

Whānau: Whānau is often translated as family or extended family. In a broader sense, it refers to the collective community related by blood, marriage, or adoption.